Trunk Obesity – Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Stem obesity

Trunk obesity corresponds to the male fat distribution pattern in the context of obesity and is primarily characterized by visceral fat deposits. In addition to lack of exercise and wrong eating habits, the causes of obesity can be hormonal and genetic factors. Treatment is dependent on the primary cause.

What is trunk obesity?

The body region of the abdomen includes the trunk area between the pelvis and the chest. This region tends to store fat. Obese fat storage with an abdominal focus is also referred to as trunk obesity . Trunk obesity is a variant of obesity . As such, the excessive proliferation of adipose tissue is defined.

This is to be distinguished from mere overweight , with a body mass index of 30 being the boundary between obesity and overweight. All forms of obesity are chronic diseases with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. In addition to the abdomen, the entire trunk can be affected by trunk obesity.

Anatomically, the central portion of the body is called the torso. This trunk includes parts of the chest, the abdomen, the trunk side and parts of the pelvis. In principle, there are other forms of designation for the fat distribution pattern with an abdominal center.

The expression of android obesity, for example, is thought to be a male fat distribution pattern of obesity, which also emphasizes the abdomen and is also known as apple-type visceral or central obesity. This is to be distinguished from gynoid obesity with an emphasis on the hips, which is more common in women.


Forms of obesity arise from multifactorial relationships. In addition to genetic causes, lack of exercise, malnutrition and eating disorders are regarded as factors for the disease. In addition, endocrine disorders such as leptin resistance or disorders of resistin and adiponectin homeostasis can cause obesity.

The same applies to taking medication, such as glucocorticoids , neuroleptics or antidiabetics . Other factors can be immobilization or pregnancy. The trunk obesity as a male distribution pattern of obesity is in many cases the symptom of Cushing’s syndrome . This symptom complex is characterized by an excessive supply of glucocorticoids.

The syndrome is often due to secondary adrenal insufficiency or is rooted in disorders of hypothalamic-pituitary regulation. Various neoplasms can also be the primary cause of Cushing’s syndrome. Due to the increased glucocorticoid secretion, the body is provided with an excessive amount of glucose as part of the syndrome.

Symptoms, Ailments & Signs

The main symptoms of obesity are severe obesity and excessive fat deposits in the abdomen. In the context of the phenomenon, visceral fat storage is particularly relevant. Characteristically, these deposits impress as a beer belly. Visceral fat is intra-abdominal fat that is stored in the free abdominal cavity and thus envelops the internal organs.

Up to a certain amount, visceral fat assumes a protective function. In healthy people, intra-abdominal fat is not directly visible to the naked eye. Only when the deposits exceed a certain level does the abdominal volume increase. A manifest trunk obesity is usually associated with secondary diseases or other symptoms.

In addition to high blood pressure , arteriosclerosis can also be present. In addition, people with trunk obesity often suffer from diabetes or cardiovascular and vascular diseases. Metabolic syndrome often occurs. Thromboses , strokes , heart attacks and Alzheimer’s and cancer are favored by trunk obesity.

Diagnosis & disease progression

The abdominal circumference is used as a measure for the diagnosis of trunk obesity. The circumference is measured two fingers across the upper edge of the iliac crest. Women with a circumference of 80 and men with a circumference of 94 centimeters and over suffer from excessive visceral fat deposits. Since 2012, more attention has been paid to abdominal fat in obesity diagnostics.

The Body Shape Index BSI, which has been used since then, includes the harmful belly fat in the calculation for the first time. The ratio between body size and abdominal circumference in the sense of the waist-to-height ratio can also play a role in the diagnosis of trunk obesity. In the diagnosis of any obesity, the general fat mass is relevant in addition to the fat distribution.

In addition, the risks for secondary diseases are determined as part of the diagnostics. In addition, the causes of obesity can have diagnostic relevance. The prognosis for people with truncal obesity depends on the extent of obesity and the stamina of the patient.


Stem obesity can be associated with various health complications. People with obesity often also suffer from cardiovascular diseases, vascular diseases or diabetes. These diseases promote thrombosis, strokes and Alzheimer’s. Alzheimer’s and cancer are also increasing. If left untreated, the consequences of root obesity significantly reduce the quality of life and well-being of those affected. This often results in psychological problems as well.

Treating obesity also carries risks. Losing weight too quickly can lead to dehydration, hair loss, and fatigue. In addition, sexual desire is reduced and the performance of the brain temporarily decreases. In the long term, losing weight can damage the heart and other organs. Further complications depend on the individual treatment.

Side effects and interactions as well as allergic reactions can occur as part of drug treatment. Bleeding, infection and wound healing disorders are possible during surgery. Bumps, sagging or dents can occur as a result of liposuction, which sometimes have a negative effect on the self-esteem of the person concerned. Rarely, there can also be hygiene errors, sometimes an existing allergy or cardiac insufficiency has not been sufficiently taken into account – both are associated with life-threatening complications.

When should you go to the doctor?

In the case of a trunk obesity, the person concerned is usually always dependent on medical treatment and examination so that there are no further complications and other complaints. A doctor should also be consulted at an early stage, since the trunk obesity can also lead to the death of the patient.

A doctor should be consulted if the person concerned suffers from very strong and obvious fat deposits on the body. In most cases, these occur on the stomach and reduce the aesthetics of the person concerned. High blood pressure or diabetes can also point to obesity. If the root obesity is not treated, it can lead to a stroke or a heart attack, which can ultimately lead to death.

The trunk obesity can be recognized by a general practitioner . The further treatment then depends on the exact cause of the disease, so that no general prognosis can be given about the further course.

Treatment & Therapy

At the beginning of a regular obesity treatment there is a detailed anamnesis. It is important to clarify the patient’s eating habits and exercise habits, ideally by means of food and exercise diaries. In addition, attention must be paid to the medical history to identify relevant diseases associated with obesity.

Equally important in the run-up to therapy is a psychological assessment. Depending on the primary cause, different therapies are available for patients with obese trunk obesity. The focus of the treatment is always weight reduction. In addition to a change in diet, an exercise plan is drawn up.

In many cases of obesity, accompanying psychotherapy is a supportive treatment measure that makes sense. Ideally, the patient’s environment is included in the therapy. A decisive point in the treatment is the positive motivation of those affected. Anticipation of a healthier lifestyle should be fueled.

The aim is to convey a desire to move, enjoy eating, focus and independence. All other treatment options depend on the primary cause of the trunk obesity. If hormonal dysfunctions are present, regulatory medication or even invasive interventions may be necessary.


The adipose trunk obesity can be prevented in moderation by reducing personal risk factors for obesity. This risk reduction can take the form of a healthy lifestyle with balanced eating habits and physical activity, for example.


In the case of root obesity, the measures of direct follow-up care are usually significantly limited, although in many cases those affected are not available at all. Therefore, the person affected by this disease should consult a doctor as soon as the first signs and symptoms appear, so that complications or other symptoms do not arise as the disease progresses.

As a rule, self-healing cannot occur in the case of trunk obesity, so that those affected by this disease are dependent on a surgical intervention, which can alleviate the symptoms. After the procedure, you should rest and recover. Efforts or stressful and physical activities should be avoided in order not to unnecessarily burden the body.

In general, a healthy lifestyle with a balanced diet has a positive effect on the further course of this disease. Those affected should try to reduce their excess weight and also take part in sports. The further course of this disease depends heavily on the time of diagnosis, so that a general prediction cannot usually be made.

You can do that yourself

To a limited extent, those affected can minimize the trunk obesity in everyday life. However, there are often genetic causes for the excessive distribution of fat on the trunk. Psychological attitude is important. Patients should set goals and regularly review the success of the measures chosen.

The lifestyle must be characterized by activities. This is the only way to lose fat. A higher calorie requirement is realized through sport. Those affected should schedule regular exercise sessions in an endurance sport. You can go to a gym three times a week for two hours each time. Extensive jogging or swimming also contribute to weight reduction. Experience has shown that training sessions in groups are more likely to be sustained. On the other hand, patients have to change their eating habits. Plenty of fruit and vegetables are better than fatty foods and processed foods.

Self-treatment is not always advisable. If the suffering from your own figure has been carried around for years, a doctor’s consultation is inevitable. Therapy is usually also about strengthening self- confidence and conveying a positive attitude towards life. Forms of interaction with other people can also be practiced if deficits have arisen. If secondary diseases such as high blood pressure and diabetes have developed, medical supervision is also necessary.

Lisa Newlon
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Hello! I am Lisa Newlon, and I am a medical writer and researcher with over 10 years of experience in the healthcare industry. I have a Master’s degree in Medicine, and my deep understanding of medical terminology, practices, and procedures has made me a trusted source of information in the medical world.