Body processes

Psyche and Movement (Psychomotor) – Function, Task & Diseases

Psyche and movement (psychomotor)

Psychomotricity defines a broad field of interaction between body, mind and soul . If even one area is disturbed, behavioral deficits as well as movement and perception deficits can occur with different intensities and effects.

What is psychomotor?

Psychomotor skills are a subfield of psychology . To date, it has not been clearly defined. It deals with the voluntary and purposeful movements. The focus is on linking movement with perception and cognitive processes, so-called cognition .

It is difficult to define the concepts of sensorimotor and motor functions , which tend to characterize elementary movement performance. Motor skills, also known as motor skills, are more related to complex movement patterns.

In pedagogy and curative education , psychomotor skills also refer to motor exercise and treatment processes. Since the mid-1970s, psychomotricity has developed into an active field of research with links to European and non-European universities as kinesiology or movement science. The fields of psychology and physiology are supplemented by biology, neurology , robotics, physics and sports science. Theoretical or meta-theoretical developments as well as better possibilities for registering and analyzing the movements play a major role during the study period.

In other words, it can be said that psychomotor skills deal with human movement. The focus is on the conscious processes, the processes of expression and the processes of the will. This includes, for example, emotionality and concentration , but also the highly individual personality structure.

Ernst Kiphard is considered the forefather of psychosomatics with his range of sports for children who are aggressive and have behavioral problems. His range of sports related positively to the emotional development of children.

function & task

Different functional principles apply to the control of movement in psychomotor systems. The psychomotor investigations rest on two pillars. On the one hand, the basic performances in everyday life such as grasping , reaching, standing , writing and speaking as well as locomotion are addressed. On the other hand, the general functional principles must be included.

It is always important to adapt your own movements to the environment. For example touching something in a certain place. First of all, a spatial coordinate, related to the target position, is required. Then certain joint positions have to be assumed, which cannot be achieved without combined muscle forces and certain muscle innervations. The transformation thus includes the motor innervation of the muscles, the muscle forces and the joint position of the fingertips.

A movement control can therefore not be limited to individual limbs. When you raise your arm , for example, your body’s center of gravity is shifted. This leads to activities in the leg muscles in order to be able to keep your balance. When walking, there is an interdependence between the simultaneous movements of different limbs that needs to be coordinated.

The emergence of impaired movement sequences is attributed to an interaction of psychological experience as well as the development of perception and motor skills. A summary is made under the technical terms motopedics, mototherapy and motopedagogy, but also movement therapy or movement pedagogy.

In principle, psychomotor skills always describe personality development from a holistic perspective. Psyche and physique are always connected and movement sequences are based on self-awareness. That is why the posture of a person always says something about their mental state. At the same time, movements not only affect one’s own motor skills, but also the perception of one’s own abilities.

Rational and emotional as well as mental processes are particularly pronounced and interconnected in children. This makes it clear why emotions are also expressed through movements or through movement sequences. Movement games are therefore used therapeutically to facilitate contact with children. Movement is therefore ideally suited to first building up movement skills and then consolidating them.

The term “psychomotor” describes the unity of motor and psychological processes. In modern medicine, the term “psychomotor” is gaining in importance, which describes the promotion of development with the help of movement.

Diseases & Ailments

Motor abnormalities in connection with behavioral deficits in childhood can occur. According to Kiphard, these are based on “minimal cerebral dysfunction”. There are deficits in movement or perception and, in the further course, hyperactivity , motor restlessness, but also concentration disorders or inhibited behavior. According to Kiphard, with motor activity it is possible to stabilize and harmonize the child’s or young person’s personality. The trampoline is very well suited to train coordination and movement.

Physical, mental and/or emotional disabilities can be treated positively with the elements of psychomotor skills. This applies to impairments in the areas of cognition and communication as well as to the areas of emotion, motor and sensory functions .

Even early childhood development can be disrupted, for example in the areas of cognition, language development , but also emotionality and the fundamental structures that shape later social behavior. In detail, it can be a question of a disturbed self- and body experience due to insufficient possibilities of physical expression and insufficient ability to perceive and implement sensory experiences. The lack of willingness or ability to recognize rules also belongs in this area.

Enuresis (bedwetting after the age of four ) can also be caused by disturbed psychomotor functions. In the primary form the child has never been dry, in the secondary form bladder control later ceased.

In addition to the psychomotor disorders already mentioned, in some cases growth retardation in terms of length and weight gain can also occur. Depressive behavior patterns are also not uncommon to observe.

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Hello! I am Lisa Newlon, and I am a medical writer and researcher with over 10 years of experience in the healthcare industry. I have a Master’s degree in Medicine, and my deep understanding of medical terminology, practices, and procedures has made me a trusted source of information in the medical world.