Anatomy & Organs

Coronary vascular resistance – function, role and diseases

Coronary vascular resistance

The vascular resistance is the resistance that a blood vessel offers to the blood . The word “corona” means crown or wreath and describes the coronary vessels in medical terminology . Since the blood circulation extends over the entire body and there is vascular resistance in all blood vessels, the term coronary vascular resistance is used to localize the specific vascular resistance of the coronary arteries .

What is coronary vascular resistance?

Vascular resistance or flow resistance are antagonists to blood pressure and are present in all blood vessels. All arteries and veins are called blood vessels .

Coronary vascular resistance deals specifically with the flow resistances of the arteries and veins of the heart.

As an opponent of blood pressure, flow resistance plays an important role in maintaining metabolism .

Function & task

The flow resistance slows the blood flow . The absorption of nutrients , oxygen , etc. from the blood into the cells is much better when the blood flow is slower. The body uses this mechanism to ensure optimal nutrient absorption.

The flow resistance not only serves to maintain a healthy blood circulation but also to absorb the transported nutrients.

Diseases & Ailments

Atherosclerosis is the deposition of cholesterol , connective tissue , fats , thrombi and calcium phosphate in the vessel walls of the arteries and veins. Atherosclerosis is also known in German as hardening of the arteries. However, an accumulation of lime, i.e. calcium carbonate, is not present in atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis can manifest itself in any blood vessel in the body. In atherosclerosis, progressive degeneration of the artery walls takes place over a long period of time.

Other circumstances such as connective tissue proliferation and accumulation of collagen and proteoglycans thicken and harden the vascular walls. Due to the thickening and lack of elasticity of the vessel walls, blood circulation is inhibited. The possible formation of blood clots also poses a significant risk to the organism.

The pathological deposit in the vessel walls is called stenosis . The restricted function of the affected arteries or veins prevents constant blood flow and numerous serious diseases can occur.

There is also the possibility that parts of the deposit will separate and form blood clots. These in turn, like a plug, can disable blood vessels or valve mechanisms. Atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries is called coronary sclerosis, and the actual deposit in the walls of the coronary arteries is called coronary stenosis.

Coronary stenosis impedes the flow of blood from the arteries to the heart muscles , thereby preventing an effective oxygen supply . The imbalance between oxygen demand and oxygen supply is called coronary insufficiency.

An imbalance in the supply and demand of oxygen is also known as ischemia . While ischemia is a general term for poor blood flow to an organ , coronary insufficiency specifically refers to ischemia of the heart muscle.

The ischemia of the heart muscle is consequently referred to as ischemic heart disease or also as coronary heart disease (CHD). Coronary heart disease is caused by coronary stenosis. A typical cardinal symptom of CHD is angina pectoris . Angina pectoris is defined by a strong feeling of pressure and dull, constricting pain behind the breastbone and in the heart area. It is triggered by an excessive imbalance between oxygen supply and oxygen demand in the heart muscle. The resulting pathological lack of oxygen is often triggered by environmental influences such as excessive stress in combination with coronary artery disease.

However, angina pectoris can also be triggered by other emotional states or secondary environmental conditions such as cold or heat. Excessive eating or physical exertion can also lead to an increased need for oxygen and thus trigger angina pectoris.

The heart attack or myocardial infarction is triggered by the separation of a blood clot from the coronary artery stenosis. After splitting off, the blood clot blocks a coronary artery, stopping the flow of oxygen from the affected artery to the affected heart muscle. The severity of the heart attack depends on the size of the blood clot that has broken off and how long the artery has been blocked.

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Hello! I am Lisa Newlon, and I am a medical writer and researcher with over 10 years of experience in the healthcare industry. I have a Master’s degree in Medicine, and my deep understanding of medical terminology, practices, and procedures has made me a trusted source of information in the medical world.