Body processes

Canine Guidance – Function, Role & Diseases

Canine guidance

The canine guidance is part of the occlusion (closure, closure), the contact between the teeth of the lower and upper row of teeth. The canines provide the slideway for the antagonistic (opposite) teeth and guide the lower jaw , while there is no contact between the posterior teeth.

What is canine guidance?

If the canine guidance also includes the premolars (preliminary teeth), dentists speak of premolar guidance. A synonym for canine guidance is the English expression canine guidance . The lead arises between the canines of the lower and upper jaw .

When the closed rows of teeth are at rest, the upper and lower molars ( back teeth ) on one side of the jaw touch. In the case of lateral chewing movements, the distance between the two rows of teeth is forced because the upper and lower canines touch due to their size. The canines thus represent an obstacle that separates the rows of teeth.

Function & task

If the chewing apparatus functions properly, the tooth and jaw joint structures are harmoniously coordinated. The interlocking of the upper and lower jaw is optimal, the jaw joints are aligned centrally, and the masticatory muscles show maximum relaxation when at rest. The entire biomechanics are therefore consistent.

The temporomandibular joint is the most complicated movement system in the human body because it performs three-dimensional spatial movements. The canine guidance is part of this movement system, with which an interaction between the temporomandibular joints, chewing surfaces, chewing muscles and the chewing muscle function arises. The term canine outside position (canine high position) describes the position of the canines outside the row of teeth. When dentists speak of canine depression, they mean the wrongly positioned canines outside of the row of teeth.

The canines have an important guiding function in the dynamic chewing function. In the case of permanent dentures such as dental bridges or crowns , an occlusion concept that also aims to restore canine guidance is important.

Full dentures or complete dentures are, however, a contraindication for creating canine guidance. A point contact between the dental prosthesis of the lower or upper jaw or their canines would tilt a full denture in the case of canine guidance. Deviating from the previously existing anatomical occlusion situation, simultaneous guidance of all teeth (molars, canines, premolars) on one side is the prerequisite for a stable chewing function. Therefore, canine guidance must be eliminated in the case of a total implant.

Diseases & Ailments

If there is a bite or occlusion disorder in the jaw joints and the chewing muscles , dentists speak of myoarthropathy. A disorder in the jaw joints is called arthropathy . A myopathy is present with a disturbed masticatory musculature. These clinical pictures occur as a result of functional disorders in the form of incorrect contacts. Synonyms are craniomandibular dysfunction (CMD) and temporomandibular joint syndrome.If the interaction of the teeth is disturbed, this leads to overstrained chewing muscles and disharmonious tooth contacts with unnatural wear and tear of the chewing surfaces. The jaw joints are then overstrained. Psychoemotional stress can also lead to tension in the facial, jaw and head muscles and thus to incorrect contact of the teeth.

The functional diagnostics and anamnesis with a description of the pain quality lead to the therapy concept against pain in the jaw joint, because misaligned teeth can not only cause problems in the jaw area, but also affect other body regions such as the head, ears and spine . The ideal way of diagnosis and therapy is therefore in interdisciplinary cooperation with other specialists such as physiotherapists , orthopedists and osteopaths . The aim is to restore a correct bite position and relaxed jaw muscles. These holistic complaints are often caused by misaligned teeth, defective dentures or bruised teeth.

Crunched side and canine teeth caused by jaw clenching and teeth grinding (bruxism) can be restored with little effort. The lost tooth substance is connected to the tooth substance with ceramic table tops and composite add-ons by means of a minimally invasive procedure through biological cross-linking (adhesive technique). The physiological bite height is restored. Composite table tops can be removed at any time and replaced with a definitive reconstruction technique using ceramics once the bite has been corrected .

In contrast to the use of crowns, this reconstruction prevents a high level of substance removal. The reconstruction treatment is usually more effective than therapy with a removable splint that is worn at night as a protective splint to protect against tooth abrasion during sleep . However, it does not fight the causes, because misalignment, abrasion, bite and occlusion disorders remain.

In most of these cases there is no functioning canine-anterior guidance. The chewing plane lowers and the pressure on the teeth increases. A bite disorder not only affects the jaw area, but can also lead to problems with the musculoskeletal and supporting apparatus. This manifests itself in pain in the hip and knee joints , in the spine and in the neck, arm and shoulder area.

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Hello! I am Lisa Newlon, and I am a medical writer and researcher with over 10 years of experience in the healthcare industry. I have a Master’s degree in Medicine, and my deep understanding of medical terminology, practices, and procedures has made me a trusted source of information in the medical world.