Blood & Laboratory Values

Blood Values ​​- Function & Diseases

Blood values

The blood is an important part of the body. It represents a “liquid organ”. A person has an average of five to seven liters of blood. It runs through the body in a circulatory system and has an important role as part of the immune system . The blood moves in a constant flow between the lungs , the heart and the other organs down to the tiny vessels. In this way, the body is supplied with all the essential substances and excretion products are transported to the responsible organs.

What are blood values?

Blood is made up of different components. The white blood cells protect the body against infection and fight it when infection occurs. White blood cells are called leukocytes in medicine .

Red blood cells are called erythrocytes and they are responsible for transporting oxygen from the lungs to the entire organism. The protein hemoglobin is a component of erythrocytes. Hematocrit is the proportion of the volume of erythrocytes in the total blood volume.

The platelets make an important contribution to blood clotting and are called thrombocytes . They ensure the closure of damaged blood vessels. The plasma is the liquid part of the blood. It consists mainly of water in which substances such as fats, proteins, glucose and salts are dissolved. In order to be able to examine blood, a blood sample must be taken. A distinction is made between capillary blood, venous blood and arterial blood.

Examine blood values ​​(healthy & sick blood values)

A common and simple blood test is blood sedimentation. Here the speed at which the blood cells settle in a tube is determined. 

Women have fewer blood cells than men in relation to the total amount of blood, so the blood cells fall a little faster. The normal value in men is 3 to 8 mm after one hour and 6 to 20 mm after two hours. In women, the normal value is 3 to 10 mm after one hour and 6 to 20 mm after two hours. If the rate of descent is increased, this can indicate an acute or chronic inflammation.

The small blood count determines the values ​​of the erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes. The normal value of erythrocytes is 4.5 to 5.9 million/µl in men and 4.0 to 5.2 million/µl in women. The hemoglobin value should be 14.0 to 18.0 g/dl in men and 12.9 to 16.0 g/dl in women.

The hematocrit value is 42% to 52% in men and 37% to 47% in women. The normal value of the leukocytes is 4000 to 9000 million/µl. The platelet count is between 140,000 and 440,000 million/µl.

The full blood count is called a differential blood count. An examination of the subtypes of white blood cells takes place. The normal values ​​of the differential blood count are neutrophilic granulocytes (segmented) 30-80%, neutrophilic granulocytes (rod-nucleated) 0-5%, eosinophilic granulocytes 0-6%, basophilic granulocytes 0-2%, monocytes 1-12% and lymphocytes 15-50% . Another examination is the coagulation test. The quick test shows disturbances in the coagulation system. The normal value is 70 to 100%.

The composition of blood reflects the state of human health. For many diseases, indications are given by the values ​​that can be measured in the blood. Blood values ​​cannot be normalized by yourself, but a healthy lifestyle makes an important contribution to staying healthy.

Diseases

Deviations in the blood values ​​can indicate illnesses. An increase in erythrocytes is called polycythemia . This can occur with lung disease, heart disease or high fluid loss. A reduction in the number of erythrocytes is called anemia . This can be caused by heavy bleeding. 

If the number of leukocytes is reduced, this is an indication of a viral infection . But drugs can also affect leukocytes. An increase in leukocytes can be caused by infestation with pathogens, parasites , bacteria or fungi. A malignant disease is leukemia .

An increased number of platelets can result from removal of the spleen, tumor diseases, injuries with blood loss or infections. The reduction in the number of platelets can be caused by medication, vitamin B12 deficiency, infections or allergic reactions .

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Hello! I am Lisa Newlon, and I am a medical writer and researcher with over 10 years of experience in the healthcare industry. I have a Master’s degree in Medicine, and my deep understanding of medical terminology, practices, and procedures has made me a trusted source of information in the medical world.