Active Ingredients

Biperiden – Effect, Application & Risks


Biperiden is one of the most important antiparkinson drugs. The basis of its action is based on the inhibition of acetylcholine . The active ingredient has been on the market since 1953 under the trade name Akneton®.

What is Biperiden?

Biperiden is an anticholinergic drug . It acts on the muscarial acetylcholine receptors in such a way that the effectiveness of acetylcholine is reduced, especially in the parasympathetic nervous system.

The active ingredient is used, among other things, for the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson’s disease . Biperiden has also had good success in reducing the side effects of psychotropic drugs and is therefore also used in this area. In pharmaceuticals, the active ingredient is in the form of biperiden hydrochloride.

Chemically, this is a white, crystalline powder that is difficult to dissolve in water. In addition to its anticholinergic influence, Biperiden also has a mood-enhancing and euphoric effect. Therefore there is a risk of abuse. Biperiden is given in tablet form and, in emergencies in the event of poisoning, also as a solution for injection.

Pharmacological action

Biperiden exerts its influence by inhibiting the muscarinic receptors for acetylcholine in the parasympathetic nervous system. The effect of acetylcholine is suppressed, resulting in a reduction in important body functions related to the parasympathetic nervous system.By what mechanism can the symptoms of Parkinson’s be treated? It is important to know that Parkinson’s is caused by a lack of the neurotransmitter dopamine . This deficiency results from the death of dopamine-producing nerve cells. Dopamine coordinates movement processes. In addition to dopamine, other neurotransmitters are also responsible for the transmission of stimuli in the nerve cells, including acetylcholine.

Due to the lack of dopamine, however, there is an imbalance between acetylcholine and dopamine. There is now a relative excess of acetylcholine, which intensifies the uncoordinated transmission of stimuli. Various options are now available for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Either dopamine precursors or degradation inhibitors for dopamine are used, or the relative excess of acetylcholine is reduced.

A combination treatment is also possible. Anticholinergics such as biperiden can be used to inhibit the action of acetylcholine. When treating with anticholinergic drugs, however, one must also accept the side effects associated with the inhibition of acetylcholine.

Medical Application & Use

As already mentioned, the most important application of Biperiden is the treatment of the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s is generally characterized by the fact that the movement sequences are increasingly uncoordinated and involuntary. A major symptom is lack of exercise.

Dexterity decreases with fast movements. There are also tremors ( shaking ) and muscle stiffness (rigor) . Furthermore, there is insecurity when walking and standing. As already mentioned, Parkinson’s is caused by an imbalance of dopamine and acetylcholine. One possible influence is treatment with anticholinergics such as Biperiden.

When choosing the remedy, the relationship between treatment success and side effects must of course also be considered. In the case of Parkinson’s, anticholinergic drugs perform less well in this regard than other drugs. The side effects due to acetylcholine inhibition play a significant role. Anticholinergic drugs such as Biperiden are used more frequently today in secondary Parkinson’s syndrome due to treatment with psychotropic drugs.

So-called dyskinesia can occur with this treatment. These are disorders of the physiological movement of organs, body parts or an entire body region. These often appear in the form of cramps, convulsive movements or tics. Here the use of Biperiden shows good results. Other areas of application are poisoning with pesticides or nicotine.

Risks & side effects

Due to its anticholinergic properties, the use of Biperiden causes various typical side effects. These include dry mouth due to the reduction in secretion and saliva production, constipation , indigestion , urinary retention and reduced sweating.Visual disturbances and an increase in heart rate can also occur. Central nervous disorders such as dizziness , fatigue , excitability or even hallucinations are also observed . These side effects are the result of a reduced acetylcholine effect. However, as with all medications, there are also direct hypersensitivities to Biperiden.

In this case, in epilepsy, dementia and constrictions in the gastrointestinal tract, its use is contraindicated. This also applies to cardiac arrhythmia and muscle weakness . During pregnancy and breastfeeding, Biperiden should only be taken under medical supervision.


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Hello! I am Lisa Newlon, and I am a medical writer and researcher with over 10 years of experience in the healthcare industry. I have a Master’s degree in Medicine, and my deep understanding of medical terminology, practices, and procedures has made me a trusted source of information in the medical world.